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Six Types of Training and Development Methods
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most steadily used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is normally not possible to teach somebody everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training typically supplements different kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is regularly the only form of training. It is normally informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she ought to, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated image of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training shouldn't be profitable when used to avoid developing a training program, though it might be an efficient a part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low value and their capacity to achieve many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication as opposed to interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically present info to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement ideas to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed within the Nineteen Fifties, it was considered helpful only for basic subjects. At this time the strategy is used for skills as numerous as air traffic control, blueprint reading, and the evaluation of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can learn at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Instructional alternate options might be quickly chosen to suit the student's capabilities, and performance could be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
Both television and film prolong the range of skills that can be taught and the way data may be presented. Many systems have digital blackboards and slide projection equipment. Using methods that mix audiovisual systems reminiscent of closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The characteristic on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential traits of the real world that are necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Each machine and other forms of simulators exist. Machine simulators typically have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they signify the real world's operational equipment. The primary objective of simulation, nonetheless, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce within the training those processes that will probably be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, together with to regulate the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and different learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games which have been used to train officers in fight methods for hundreds of years. Almost all early business games have been designed to teach primary business skills, however more current games also embody interpersonal skills. Monopoly is likely to be considered the quintessential business game for younger capitalists. It's probably the primary place kids learned the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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